Portsmouth (pronounced "Port-smith") is an independent city located in the U.S. .monwealth of Virginia. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 100,565, but a July 1, 2002 Census estimate showed the city’s population dropping to 99,790. The Norfolk Naval Shipyard, often called the Norfolk Navy Yard, is a historic and active U.S. Navy facility which is actually located in Portsmouth, despite its name. The shipyard builds, remodels, and repairs the Navy’s ships of all types. Portsmouth has miles of waterfront land on the Elizabeth River as part of the harbor of Hampton Roads. A bright spot in Portsmouth’s economic outlook is a new marine terminal for container ships scheduled to open in 2007 in the West Norfolk section. History Portsmouth is located on the western side of the Elizabeth River directly across from the City of Norfolk. In 1620, the future site of Portsmouth was recognized as suitable shipbuilding location by John Wood, a shipbuilder, who petitioned King James I of England for a land grant. The area was soon settled as a plantation .munity. Portsmouth was founded as a town in 1752 by William Crawford, a wealthy merchant and ship owner. In 1855, the Portsmouth and Norfolk area suffered an epidemic of yellow fever which killed 1 of every 3 citizens. It became an independent city from Norfolk County in 1858. The Gosport Shipyard at Portsmouth was owned by the .monwealth of Virginia after the American Revolutionary War and was sold to the new United States federal government. During the American Civil War, in 1861, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America. Fearing that the Confederacy would take control of the shipyard at Portsmouth, the shipyard .mander ordered the burning of the shipyard. The Confederate forces did in fact take over the shipyard, and did so without armed conflict through an elaborate ruse orchestrated by civilian railroad builder William Mahone (soon to be.e a famous Confederate officer). The Union forces withdrew to Fort Monroe across Hampton Roads, which was the only land in the area which remained under Union control. In early 1862, the Confederate ironclad warship CSS Virginia was rebuilt using the burned-out hulk of USS Merrimack. Virginia engaged the Union ironclad USS Monitor in the famous Battle of Hampton Roads during the Union blockade of Hampton Roads. The Confederates burned the shipyard again when they left in May of 1862. Following its recapture of Norfolk and Portsmouth (and the shipyard) by the Union forces, the name of the shipyard was changed to Norfolk Naval Shipyard, after the largest city in the area, even though the shipyard was actually located in neighboring Portsmouth. This choice of name was also probably to minimize any confusion with the pre-existing Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The latter of which is ironicaly named exactly the same way, in opposites, in that Portsmouth Naval Shipyard is really located in Kittery, Maine adjacent to and across the Piscataqua River from Portsmouth, New Hampshire Portsmouth was the county seat of Norfolk County until 1963 when the new City of Chesapeake was formed in a political consolidation with the City of South Norfolk. Portsmouth’s other county neighbor, Nansemond County also consolidated with a smaller city, forming the new City of Suffolk in 1974. In the early 21st century, Portsmouth was undergoing moderate urban renewal in the downtown area. However, population had been declining and there was no room for expansion, as it is surrounded by water and other cities of South Hampton Roads. A Virginia state legislator recently proposed a plan by which Portsmouth would merge with its neighbor cities of Norfolk and Suffolk. After a cold reception from Suffolk, the legislator changed the plan so that it would merge only Portsmouth and Norfolk. The plan, in any form, is enthusiastically embraced by many in Portsmouth. The city has a radically limited tax base. A large portion of the city is controlled by the U.S. Navy; when Navy facilities are .bined with schools, churches, and other tax-exempt entities, over half of Portsmouth’s assessed valuation is off the tax rolls. A new marine terminal for container ships scheduled to open in 2007 in the West Norfolk section. Virginia has funded millions of dollars in railroad and transportation improvements to serve it. Geography Portsmouth is located at 3649’52" North, 7620’44" West (36.831298, -76.345641)GR1. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 120.7 km (46.6 mi). 85.9 km (33.2 mi) of it is land and 34.9 km (13.5 mi) of it is water. The total area is 28.87% water. Demographics As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 100,565 people, 38,170 households, and 25,497 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,170.9/km (3,032.7/mi). There were 41,605 housing units at an average density of 484.4/km (1,254.7/mi). The racial makeup of the city was 45.84% White, 50.61% African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, and 1.62% from two or more races. 1.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 38,170 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% have a female household with no husband present and 33.2% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median in.e for a household in the city was $36,742, and the median in.e for a family was $39,577. Males had a median in.e of $30,122 versus $23,375 for females. The per capita in.e for the city was $16,507. 16.2% of the population and 13.3% of families were below the poverty line. 22.7% of those under the age of 18 and 10.7% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. 相关的主题文章: